|"Les Dieux de la Guerre" by Adolphe-Léon Willette in La Baïonnette, Paris, January 3, 1918|
This is the context in which President Woodrow Wilson introduced his "Fourteen Points" in a speech on January 8, 1918. Viewing the complex system of bilateral alliances compelling one nation after another to commit to a war that really should have been a matter between Austria and Serbia alone, Wilson proposed "open covenants of peace" in place of "private international understandings," and establishment of a "general association of nations" for the resolution of international disputes.
|"Peace and Justice" by Oscar Cesare in New York Evening Post, January, 1918|
|"For This We Fight" by John H. Cassel in New York Evening World, January 9 or 10, 1918|
|"Hog Proof, By Thunder!" by Jay N. "Ding" Darling, January 9, 1918|
In the end, English and French demands at war's end resulted in much harsher terms for Germany, both in terms of territory and reparations, than Wilson envisioned. Nevertheless, at Wilson's death in February of 1924, Munich cartoonist Thomas Theodor Heine blamed his country's troubles on the late President and his 14 Points (here represented by fourteen beads on a fishhook):
|"Wilson vor Seinem Richter" by Thomas Theodor Heine in Simplicissimus, Munich, February 25, 1924|
|"A Performance for Little Children" by Billy Ireland in Columbus Evening Dispatch, January, 1918|
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.When the Russian Bolshevik government discovered that Germany and Austria expected the Brest-Litovsk treaty to take Poland and the Baltic states away from Russia, negotiations toward the treaty were stalled.
|"The Mask That Was Torn Off" by Nelson Harding in Brooklyn Eagle, January, 1918|
|"The More They Squabble" by cartoonist in Noví Satirikon, Petrograd, December, 1917?|
|"Russen-Ersatz" by Ragnvald Blix in Simplicissimus, Munich, January 22, 1918|
|"If You Lay Down Your Rifle" by Soler in l'Esquella, Barcelona, December 1917 or January 1918.|